What are genetic disorders?

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A genetic disorder is caused due to abnormality in person’s DNA. These abnormalities are infact mutations in the genes in which entire chromosome is added or removed. Mutation and variation both can cause gene mutation. Many types of cancers are caused due to genetic disorders in them i.e mutation in genes. Such mutations occur due to cigarette smoking and environmental exposure.

There are some inherited genetic disorders as well.  In such case a mutated gene is transferred from parents to offspring and cause genetic disorders. Some genetic disorders are due to abnormality in the chromosome numbers. For example, in Down’s syndrome, an extra chromosome is present. There are different types of genetic disorders, which are:

  • Single gene (Mendelian/monogenic)
  • Multifactorial (polygenic/complex)
  • Mitochondrial
  • Chromosomal

Genes are named according to the disorder to which they are associated. If gene is linked with hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disease and the gene which causes it is called hemochromatosis gene. Sickle cell anemia is also a disease cause due to genetic disorder.

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Filed Under: Hormonal Disorders

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